Testicular Biopsy

A Testicular Biopsy is a surgical procedure to remove some testicular tissue to study under the microscope for identifying spermatogenic stages which can be used for fertilization during IVF treatment. Sometimes, there are secondary spermatocytes which have completed reduction division and can be used for IVF/ICSI.

Biopsy Procedure  

There are two different procedures for testicular biopsy.

Is Testicular Biopsy for Me ?

A testicular biopsy can be done for the men who have:

  • no sperm in their semen but sperm cells are present in testicles
  • to undergo IVF treatment with ICSI, it can help to recover the sperm cells
  • an abnormality in hormone analysis and the semen need to be examined therefore

Sometimes the testicular biopsy is done to identify the tumor.

Semen examination can identify the issues like low sperm count with abnormality, low sperm motility or Azoospermia (No sperm found), etc. Often, blood tests and hormone tests confirm the causes of those issues but in case, these tests are not enough to confirm, one needs to go for a testicular biopsy.


In this process a thin needle is inserted through the skin which also has a syringe to collect testicular tissue. There is no need for any incision or stitches in this process. As it is done through the skin insertion it is called a percutaneous biopsy.

A Core Needle Biopsy is a variant of this technique. It uses a thick, empty, spring-loaded needle to extract a cylinder of cells. This is called a core sample. A core sample is a larger specimen than one from a fine needle biopsy.


The Open Biopsy is a surgical procedure as doctors need to open the scrotum and remove some part of the testes.

The area is first cleaned with antiseptic and local anesthesia is injected around the area of the incision. A small cut is made to open the scrotum. Then the thick coat of tissue (tunica albuginea) covering the testis is cut open to remove the seminiferous tubules. The opening in the testicles is stitched to close the cut. The procedure can be repeated on other testes, if required.

Testicular biopsy is the last step needed to assess male infertility. Initially, the doctor advises hormone and semen analysis.

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